Star power: Industries in Maharashtra to now get ratings based on emissions

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Original article.

The Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) launched a new star rating programme for air pollution on June 5, 2017–World Environment Day. The programme uses smoke-stack emissions data that MPCB is already collecting. But, since sampling results are not very comprehensible to the general public, MPCB is turning these pollution readings into an easy-to-understand Star Rating.

Under the new scheme, industries are rated based on the density of fine particulate pollution coming from their smoke stacks. The best performing industries receive five stars. Those with the highest density of emissions receive only one star. Industry, government and the public can then log onto the MPCB website to access the report cards for plants in their area.

India is making headway to ambitious goals for clean energy, such as solar and wind power. Between 2017 and 2040, India will account for 15% of the estimated $10.2 trillion global investment in power generation. As these technologies get better and cheaper, the costs of going green have fallen. Earlier this year, the cost of solar power (Rs 2.62/kWh) fell below the market price for coal-generated power by the National Thermal Power Corporation, India’s largest power utility (Rs. 3.2/kWh), as The Guardian reported on May 10, 2017.

The cost of solar energy could drop a further 66% by 2040 over current costs, according to the Bloomberg New Energy Outlook 2017 report. Yet, progress in technology alone will not be enough for industry to take up cleaner growth.

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Maharashtra knows the benefits and the by-products of growth. For instance, the heavy industry centre of Chandrapur is ranked the most polluted city in India as of 2016 with an air-quality index (AQI) of 824. The MPCB regulates industries in Maharashtra and requires advanced control technology. What more can be done to bring this pollution down? In an area as thick with cement, power, and other heavy industries as Chandrapur, it is hard for the public to know the answer to this question.

In this May 16, 2017, photograph, a labourer installs solar panels at a site in Greater Noida, some 45km from New Delhi. Solar power prices in India have hit rock bottom, but it is not all good news for the electricity-starved country as the phenomenon has hit investor confidence and threatens the country’s effort to push its green credentials. (AFP file photo)

The Maharashtra Star Rating Programme is the first government-led initiative in India that makes data available from approximately 20,000 industrial stack samples over multiple years. An easy and accessible way to inform residents of Maharashtra about the industry emissions around where they live and work, the programme has the added benefit of infusing transparency and accountability into the system.

Such transparency can bring about change in two possible ways. First, by making citizens more informed about the sources of pollution in their communities, citizens can then call for action. And second, by giving industries information on their pollution emissions, they may discover inefficiencies in their system and opportunities for improvements such as installing new technologies.

It could also instil some healthy competition. There’s a growing literature in behavioural economics (here, here and here) that suggests that knowing what your peers are doing can be an important source of change. So, industries may see how their performance compares to others and be motivated to improve. Along the way, they could also learn from each other’s success.

Since the MPCB already collects high-quality data on industrial air pollution emissions on a regular basis, the programme has practically no cost with possibly limitless returns. This innovative policy effort builds on successful technology efforts MPCB has created and championed, such as the mandating of Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems (CEMS) for high pollution potential industries. In providing access to real-time pollution data, CEMS—like the Star Rating Programme—encourages self-regulation by improving data transparency and quality of information.

A coal-burning power plant can be seen behind a factory. (Reuters file photo)

The Star Rating scheme is a new kind of regulation in India. It sets ambitious targets for industries, aside from only heaping on penalties. It also informs the broader public to encourage calls for action.

Similar programmes have launched before, such as the Program for Pollution Control Evaluation and Rating (PROPER) in Indonesia, the United States Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), India Centre for Science and Environment Green Rating Programme and AKOBEN in Ghana for rating the environmental performance of industries in the mining sector. However, the Maharashtra Star Rating Programme will be the first ever programme released by a government regulator to provide industry ratings across sectors on particulate matter emissions.

A coalition of researchers from J-PAL South Asia, the Energy Policy Institute at the University of Chicago (EPIC), and Evidence for Policy Design (EPoD) at Harvard Kennedy School will assist the state government in evaluating this programme and tracking its success, which ultimately relies on how industries respond to this information being made public. The effort has the potential to become a global model for how star-rating schemes can function successfully.

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Stockholm mayor: ‘Fuel poverty is non-existent in Nordic countries’

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Nordic countries have relegated fuel poverty to the history books by setting legal minimum standards for heating and giving house-owners a strong incentive to invest in refurbishment, says the mayor of the Swedish capital.

Karin Wanngård has been mayor of Stockholm since 2014. She responded in writing to questions from EURACTIV’s publisher and editor, Frédéric Simon.

Heating and, to a lesser extent, cooling currently account for half of the EU’s annual energy consumption. What can European cities do to encourage a switch to cleaner technologies?

As a first step cities can start using sustainable biomass and waste that can no longer be recycled in the existing coal-fired power plants. Also, in many places today 60-70% energy used in electricity production is lost. By localising heat-demanding factories in the vicinity of the power plant this can be lowered considerably as they can use the excess heat.

If existing district heating grids are updated and expanded to modern smart grids, waste heat streams from industries or cooling of computer server halls and grocery stores can also be used for heating, resulting in even less energy waste.

The price of solar panels has gone down tremendously over the years. Companies like Tesla are now bringing solar tiles to consumers for a price they claim is competitive. Does the future of heating lie in solar?

Since the demand for heat is at its peak when solar panels don’t deliver, i.e. during nights and in winter time, using solar panels alone would need extensive investments in seasonal storing capacity. This would also mean large amounts of the energy being lost in the transformation process and in order to use this waste heat you would still need a district heating grid.

One smart solution is a combination of heat and power plants, using renewable fuels and waste, producing heat and also electricity to balance the periodic electricity production from solar and wind, together with a district heating grid to move waste heat from excess areas to where it is needed.

Biomass is still widely used in some countries but its use can be controversial. Paris for instance recently banned wood for heating to address air pollution issues. So does biomass still have a place in people’s homes?

Sustainable biomass is a crucial part of the fossil-free energy system. Together with waste heat this is one of the few available alternatives for heating Europe and it is a key component for Stockholm to reach the goal of being free of fossil fuels in 2040.

The problem for air quality is not biomass but boilers without cleaning. Air quality will suffer regardless if you burn biomass, coal, oil or natural gas in boilers without cleaning. Stockholm has substituted about 100,000 oil and coal chimneys without cleaning, with less than 10 big chimneys, burning biomass and waste, using state-of-the art exhaust cleaning and continuous monitoring of emissions. This has reduced air pollution substantially. The air quality in Stockholm is 100 times better than before and simultaneously about 1,000 fuel delivery trucks (10 % of the trucks) are no longer needed in our streets.

Substituting fossil fuels with biomass and waste energy, together with a high storage of carbon in growing forest, gives both a storm- and fireproof carbon storage and extensive replacement of fossil fuels. This is an everlasting method with far better climate performance, than the one-off method of letting the forest be unused until it stops storing carbon and becomes very vulnerable to storms and wildfires.

District heating systems are often cited as an example of efficient heating systems for cities. They are now commonplace in Nordic countries and were widely installed in Eastern Europe during the communist days. But they also require heavy infrastructure investments. Is this a technology of the past or of the future?

The potential in district heating is far from fully exploited. It is a climate-efficient way to balance periodic electricity from wind and solar, to move waste heat to where it is needed and to use waste that can no longer be recycled. In addition, it’s also preventing harmful substances from spreading in the environment.

Stockholm is now combining cooling needs for computer server halls and grocery stores with heating needs in residential areas, thus reducing heat waste to almost nothing. Seasonal heat storage is developing, for example by using solar panels and temporary excess heat, to heat water and store it underground for winter use. Smart grids and increasingly efficient heat pumps will offer many new applications and possibilities to utilise also minor waste heat sources. For example, we’re seeing development of washers and dryers using the heat directly from the district heating grid, thus avoiding transformation losses to and from electricity.